Interest free EMI is a major trap in the retail industry today. While it is dominant in Electronics and gadgets, Tractors, Automobiles and Equipments are also not very far. People working in loan segments in NBFCs and Banks will know pretty well about it. The question is why on earth will anyone lend you money without earning any interest, unless of course he/she is personally related to you. And that too when they themselves are getting the money on loan at a certain interest. Imagine yourself taking a personal loan at x% annual interest, to lend it out to another person at y% annual interest. Is there any reason why x>y? I believe no.
The question then is, how is it that many merchants are providing interest free EMIs? I’m just trying to answer the question in this article. The trick lies in Internal Rate of Return (IRR), which is a tool to measure profitability of an investment. It’s internal because it does not consider external factors (interests and inflation). It is related to Net Present Value (NPV). IRR is the interest rate in a given time frame which results in a zero NPV. In case of loans it is the actual rate of interest. Now, the detail funda and calculation is not meant for morons like me. For us there is MS Excel and it’s inbuilt functions of which IRR is of our basic interest at the moment. The function helps us calculate the IRR, for a given cashflow. I’m attaching a ready to use calculation sheet for your reference.
In the sheet provided, first let me try to explain some of the terms.
Asset Cost: Is the price at which you are purchasing the gadget, say a laptop.
Net Finance: It is the actual loan amount. If you are purchasing a Laptop of 50000 in 6 (Interest Free) EMIs, then the actual loan becomes 41667. Because 50000/6= 8333.33. which is the EMI. and the First one you are already paying at the time of purchase. So, it (1st EMI, in this case) shouldn’t be considered as loan.
PPD: Prompt pay discount, which you usually do not get. It gives you certain discount in percentage if paid within certain no. of days.
Tenure: is the tenure of loan repayment.
No. of Installments: No. of actual EMIs. For a tenure of 6 months, no. of installments will be 5, because u pay one EMI (equivalent of money as down payment during purchase.)
Installments in Advance: In case you are providing EMI in advance. Quite popular in Car segment.
Moratorium: It is the time between loan disbursement and the 1st EMI due date. It is usually 30 day i.e. One month.
Management Fee: Or processing charges etc. which has an impact on IRR and most of the times we ignore it and the financer goes away with lucrative IRR and we remain happy thinking that we are paying lower interests.
Loading: 6 EMIs of equal value means Equally loaded or none as per the sheet. But, if financer is taking 60 % of your money in first 2 EMIs and rest 40% in 4 EMIs, it increases the IRR by a huge percentage. This is simply the time value of money 🙂 Isn’t it?
Split Disbursement: It is usually for house loans or mega projects where the loan is disbursed in stages as per the development of the project.
Upfront Discount: Also known as subvention, this is the major area which heavily influences the IRR.
Credit Period: The time between the invoice date and the actual payment date of the loan amount to retailer or seller. More credit days, more the IRR. But the seller also doesn’t like credit days as he loses money due to credit.
Sourcing: It comes when the financer gives the lead to the seller.
Now, let me give you an example. See the image below.
The flat rate of Interest is Zero. But the IRR is about 2%. Now see the next screenshot.
Notice that the Flat rate is again Zero. But IRR is more than 14 %. How? Just because of the upfront discount or subvention. This is the money, the seller gives to financer to give you a rosy picture of interest free EMIs!
You can download the sheet and experiment by changing various parameters. Revert back in case you need help. Till then, bye!